Changing States

16 08 2012

CHANGES IN STATES OF MATTER
PERUBAHAN KEADAAN BAHAN

Water can exist in three states – solid, liquid and gas.
Air boleh wujud dalam tiga keadaan – pepejal, cecair dan gas.

When water is heated or cooled, it will change into another state.
Apabila air dipanaskan atau disejukkan, ia akan berubah kepada bentuk yang lain.

The change of state of water takes place through certain process such as:
Perubahan keadaan air berlaku melalui proses-proses tertentu seperti:

(a) Melting
     Peleburan

(b) Freezing
     Pembekuan

(c) Condensation
     Kondensasi

(d) Boiling
     Pendidihan

(e) Evaporation
     Penyejatan

MELTING
PELEBURAN

Ice  melts into water (Solid –> Liquid) at temperature higher than melting point (0 °C).
Ais melebur menjadi air (Pepejal –> Cecair) pada suhu di atas takat lebur (0 °C).

FREEZING
PEMBEKUAN

Water freeze into ice (Liquid –> Solid) at temperature below than freezing point (°C).
Air membeku menjadi ice (Cecair –> Pepejal) pada suhu bawah takat beku (°C).

CONDENSATION
KONDENSASI

Steam condenses into water when touches a cold surface (Gas –> Liquid).
Wap terkondensasi menjadi air apabila ia disejukkan (Wap –> Cecair).

BOILING
PENDIDIHAN

Water boils into steam (Liquid –> Gas) at boiling point (100 °C). Boiling occurs throughout the liquid.
Air mendidih kepada wap (Cecair –> Gas) pada takat didih (100 °C). Pendidihan berlaku di keseluruhan cecair. 

EVAPORATION
PENYEJATAN

Evaporation (liquid –> gas) only occurs at the surface of water at any temperature.
Penyejatan (cecair –> gas) hanya berlaku pada permukaan air pada sebarang suhu.

FACTORS AFFECTING EVAPORATION RATE
FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KADAR PENYEJATAN

The rate of evaporation of water increases when surface area is larger, the temperature of the surroundings is higher and there is wind.
Kadar penyejatan air meningkat apabila luas permukaan adalah besar, suhu persekitaran tinggi, dan adanya angin.


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